Ribollita in the Style of Siena

This image courtesy of Joseph DeLeo

This famous Tuscan soup is not really soup in the literal sense; rather, it is a thick panade, or porridge, of bread, vegetables, and beans baked under a sheet of caramelized onions. It makes a wonderful meal in a bowl. The word ribollita means “reboiled” in Italian, which is just what is done in Tuscan homes with a two- or three-day-old minestrone. A good ribollita is thick with greens, such as Italian black kale (also called Tuscan kale, dinosaur kale, or lacinato kale) and spinach, mashed and whole beans, and a mix of vegetables cooked and recooked so many times that they’ve turned meltingly soft. The topping of thinly sliced, cooked-till-crusty caramelized onions gives this dish a lovely appearance, especially when prepared, as is proper, in a wide-mouth earthenware casserole. A good ribollita is truly divine. I like it so much I skip its earlier minestrone incarnations. Rather, I make the base soup, let it sit for three days, and then go for the masterpiece! In addition, if you don’t eat it all up, which wouldn’t be surprising since the dish is so rich, reheat it again, and it will only get richer and thicker. It’s also good served lukewarm.

NotesIf using an electric or ceramic stovetop, be sure to use a heat diffuser with the clay pots.

Notes to the cook:

• I save Parmigiano-Reggiano and Romano cheese rinds in the freezer in a plastic bag, so a piece or two can be added whenever I make this soup, or any bean soup with an Italian accent. Submerged in liquid, the rind will turn soft and add depth of flavor. If you sliver a softened piece and return it to the soup, it will dissolve and impart flavor throughout.

• I learned a great method for preparing large volumes of greens in a soup pot from cooks on the Ligurian coast. After washing the greens, tear them up, salt lightly, and leave for 30 minutes. They will exude much of their moisture and will collapse but will retain full flavor and all their vitamins while giving up much of their bitterness. Before cooking, rinse off the salt, shred the greens even finer, and add to the soup pot.


Cooking Methodbraising, sauteeing


Total Timea day or more

Make Ahead RecipeYes

Kid FriendlyYes

One Pot MealYes

OccasionBuffet, Casual Dinner Party, Family Get-together

Recipe Coursemain course

Dietary Considerationegg-free, halal, kosher, peanut free, soy free, tree nut free, vegetarian



Taste and Texturebubbly, crisp, rich, savory

Type of Dishcasserole, hot soup, soup


  • 1½ pounds mixed greens with a predominance of Tuscan kale mixed with young Swiss chard and baby spinach (see Notes)
  • 2/3 cup extra virgin olive oil
  • 2 medium yellow onions, chopped
  • 1/3 cup diced celery plus a few tender celery leaves
  • 1 cup diced carrot
  • 3 cups cooked cannellini beans (1 cup dried)
  • 2 teaspoons minced garlic
  • ½ cup chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley
  • ½ teaspoon dried thyme or Mediterranean oregano
  • 1 bay leaf
  • ½ cup tomato sauce or puree
  • 1 small chunk Parmigiano-Reggiano or pecorino rind (optional)
  • 12 slices stale country bread, torn into pieces
  • Salt and freshly ground black pepper
  • Splash of red wine vinegar
  • 3 medium red onions, thinly sliced
  • A 4 to 5-quart glazed or unglazed earthenware or flameware casserole
  • A deep 12-inch-wide overproof ceramic casserole or Spanish cazuela


  1. Begin the soup 2 days in advance. Rinse the kale and other greens and strip away the hard stems. Sprinkle the leaves generously with salt and drain in a colander in the sink for 30 minutes. Rinse and squeeze dry; then coarsely chop them.

  2. Meanwhile, heat half the olive oil in the 5-quart casserole over medium heat. If using earthenware, be sure to start on low and raise the heat gradually. Add the chopped yellow onions, celery, and carrot and cook until the vegetables are soft and just turning golden, about 20 minutes. Add the greens to the pot, stirring to coat them with oil.

  3. Crush half the cannellini beans to a puree. Add all the beans, the garlic, parsley, thyme, bay leaf, tomato sauce, and cheese rind to the mixture and cook, stirring, for a few minutes. Pour in 3 quarts warm water and slowly bring to a boil. Cover, reduce the heat, and simmer for 30 minutes to blend the flavors. Remove from the heat, uncover, and let cool.

  4. Stir the bread into the cool soup and return the pot to low heat. Raise the heat to medium-low and cook, stirring, until the bread crumbles and the soup turns creamy with small bread chunks here and there. Add water if necessary to keep the mixture smooth but always so thick a spoon can stand up in it. Let cool, cover, and refrigerate for 2 days.

  5. About 3 hours before serving, remove the soup from the refrigerator. Correct the seasoning with salt, plenty of black pepper, and a splash of vinegar. Remove the cheese rind (see Notes). Preheat the oven to 350°F.

  6. Lightly oil the 12-inch-wide casserole and turn the ribollita into it. Top with slightly overlapping slices of red onion. Drizzle the remaining 1/3 cup olive oil over the top and bake for 2 hours. Turn off the heat and leave the dish in the oven until it cools down to warm, 35 minutes. Serve with a pepper mill and a cruet of your best Tuscan extra virgin olive oil.


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